A nonionic amphiphile, TPGS-750-M, enables efficient Stille couplings between a wide range of substrates to be conducted in water as the only medium, in most cases at room temperature.
Guo-ping Lu, Chun Cai and Bruce H. Lipshutz
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C2GC36042J, Paper
A nonionic amphiphile TPGS-750-M enables efficient Stille couplings between a wide range of substrates in water as the only medium, and in most cases, at room temperature. These newly developed, environmentally friendly reactions are free of organic solvents, while workup entails only a simple in-flask extraction with a minimal amount of a single, recoverable organic solvent. This protocol offers high yields and excellent selectivity, and hence, potential applications to targets in total synthesis.
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